Cotton LEADS


Sources for information related to environmental impact areas, systems and processes in Australia and the United States

Ayers, R.S., and D.W. Westcot. 1985. Water quality for agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29.

Bednarz, C., J. Hook, R. Yager, S. Cromer, D. Cook, and I. Griner. 2002. Cotton crop water use and irrigation scheduling p. 61-64, In A. S. Culpepper, et al., eds. Cotton Research-Extension Report.

Bell, C., and J. Taylor. 2008. Water Laws and Policies for a Sustainable Future: A Western States’ Perspective. A Report Prepared by the Staff of the Western States Water Council. 233 pp. Also available at:

Ben-Gal., A, Lazorovitch, N., and Shani, U. 2004. Subsurface drop irrigation in gravel-filled cavities. Vadose Zone Journal. Published online at:

Bhattarai, S.P., McHugh, A.D., Lotz, G., and Midmore, D.J. 2006. The response of cotton to subsurface drip and furrow irrigation in a vertisol. Experimental Agriculture. 42:29-49.

Bordovsky, J. P., J. T. Mustian, G. L. Ritchie, K. L. Lewis. 2015. Cotton irrigation timing with variable seasonal irrigation capacities in the Texas South Plains. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. Vol. 31(6): 883-897.

Boyer, C.N., B.C. English, R.K. Roberts, J.A. Larson, D.M. Lambert, M. Velandia, X. Zhou, S. Larkin, M. Marra, R. Rejesus, L.L. Falconer, S.W. Martin, A.K. Mishra, K. P. Paudel, J. Johnson, E. Segarra, C. Wang, and J.M. Reeves. 2014. Results from a cotton precision farming survey across fourteen southern states. In Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences, New Orleans, LA, January 6-8, 2014. National Cotton Council of America, Memphis, TN.

Bronson, K. F., T. A. Wheeler, C. M. Brown, R. K. Taylor, P. C. Scharf and E. M. Barnes. 2012. Use of Nitrogen Calibration Ramps and Canopy Reflectance on Farmers’ Irrigated Cotton Fields. Soil Science Society of America Journal 76:1060-1067.

Buser, M.D., D.P. Whitelock, J.C. Boykin, and G.A. Holt. 2012. Characterization of Cotton Gin Particulate Matter Emissions—Project Plan. The Journal of Cotton Science 16:105–116.

Carpenter, J., A. Felsot, T. Goode, M. Hammig, D. Onstad, and S. Sankula. 2002. Comparative Environmental Impacts of Biotechnology-derived and Traditional Soybean, Corn, and Cotton Crops. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa.

Cattaneo, M. G., C. Yafuso, C Schmidt, C. Hyang, M. Rahman, C. Olson, C. Eller-Kirk, B.J. Orr, S.E. Marsh, L. Antilla, P. Dutilleul, and Y. Carriere. 2006. Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and Yield. PNAS 103(20):7571-7576.

Causarano, H. J., A. J. Franzluebbers, D. W. Reeves, and J. N. Shaw. 2006. Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in Cotton Production Systems of the Southeastern United States: A Review. J. Environ. Qual. 35:1374-1383.

Cotton Australia. 2016. Biotechnology and cotton fact sheet. Available at:

Cotton Incorporated. 2016. The life cycle assessment of cotton fiber and fabric. Executive summary available at:

Cotton Research and Development Corporation. September 2012. Australian Cotton Industry: Third Environmental Assessment. Prepared by Inovact Consulting. Available at:

CTIC. 2008. 2008 Amendment to the National Crop Residue Management Survey Summary. Conservation Technology Information Center, West Lafayette, Indiana.

Daystar, J.S., E. Barnes, K. Hake, and R. Kurtz. 2017. Sustainability trends and natural resource use in U.S. cotton production. BioResources 12(1):363-392.

Duncan, L.A., M.J. Buschermohle, M. Velandia, and J. Reed. 2014. Influence of Variable Rate Fertilization and Cover Crops on Cotton Sustainability Using the Field to Market Fieldprint Calculator. In Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences, New Orleans, LA, January 6-8, 2014. National Cotton Council of America, Memphis, TN.

EPA. 2002. Clean Water Act Section 319 Law: 33 USC Sec. 1329: Title 33 – Navigation and navigable waters Chapter 26 – Water pollution prevention and control subchapter III – standards and enforcement. In the FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ACT [As Amended Through P.L. 107–303, November 27, 2002].

FAO. 2011. The state of the world’s land and water resources for food and agriculture (SOLAW) – Managing systems at risk. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and Earthscan, London.

Field to Market: The Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture. December 2012. Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators for Measuring Outcomes of On-Farm Agricultural Production in the United States (Second Edition, Version 2).

Field to Market: The Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture. 2016. Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators for Measuring Outcomes of On-Farm Agricultural Production in the United States (Third Edition). ISBN: 978-0-692-81902-9.

Goyal S.S., S.K. Sharma, D.W. Rains, A. Lauchli. 1999. Long-term reuse of drainage water of varying salinities for crop irrigation in a cotton-safflower rotation system in the San Joaquin Valley of California: A nine year study: I. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Journal of Crop Production 2(2):181-213.

Gran, T. J., Brian G. Leib, Hubert J. Savoy, David A. Verbree and Amir Haghverdi. Cotton Response to Irrigation and Nitrogen Source in Differing Mid-South Soils. 2017. Agronomy Journal 109: 6: 2537-2544.

Griffin, T.W., Boniovanni, R., and Lowenberg-DeBoer, J. 2010. Worldwide Adoption of Precision Agriculture Technology: The 2010 Update. In the Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Precision Agriculture, Denver, CO, July 2010.

Grimes, D.W., and H. Yamada. 1982. Relation of cotton growth and yield to minimum leaf water potential. Crop Sci. 22:134-139.

Hansen, L. and M. Ribaudo. 2008. Economic Measures of Soil Conservation Benefits. Technical Bulletin Number 1922. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. 25 pp.

Hanson, B., S.R. Grattan, and A. Fulton. 1999. Agricultural salinity and drainage. Oakland: University of California Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources Publication 3375.

Head, G., W. Moar, M. Eubanks, G. Freeman, J. Ruberson, A. Hagerty, and S. Turnipseed. 2005. A multiyear, large-scale comparison of arthropod populations on commercially managed Bt and non-Bt cotton fields. Environmental Entomology 34:1257-1266.

Hoekstra, A.Y. and A.K. Chapagain. 2007. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. Water Resources Management 21(1):35-48.

Holt, G.A., G. L. Barker, R. V. Baker, and A. Brashears. 2000. Characterization of cotton gin byproducts produced by various machinery groups used in the ginning operation. Transactions of the ASAE 43(6): 1393-1400.

Hunsaker, D. 1999. Basal crop coefficients and water use for early maturity cotton. Transactions of the ASAE 42(4):927-936.

ICAC. 2004. International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) Report of the Second Expert Panel on the Biotechnology of Cotton. Available at:

Leib, B., J. Payero, L. Pringle, J. Bordovsky, W. Porter, and E. Barnes. 2015. Placement and Interpretation of Soil Moisture Sensors for Irrigated Cotton Production in Humid Regions. Cotton Incorporated. Available at:

Liu, Shiming, Greg Constable, Warwick Stiller and Peter Reid. “Where yield progress has come from in 30 years”, 17th Australian Cotton Conference, 14 August 2012.

Liu, S.M., G.A. Constable, P.E. Reid, W.N. Stiller, B.R. Cullis, “The interaction between breeding and crop management in improved cotton yield”, Field Crops Research, Volume 148, July 2013, pages 49-60.

Meeks, Calvin D., John L. Snider, Wesley M Porter, George Vellidis, Gary Hawkins and Diane Rowland. 2017. Assessing the Utility of Primed Acclimation for Improving Water Savings in Cotton Using a Sensor-Based Irrigation Scheduling System. Crop Science 57: 4: 2117-2129.

Meyer, L., S. MacDonald, and J. Kiawu. 2011. Cotton and Wool Yearbook. Economic Research Service, USDA. Data set updated: November 2011. Also available at:

Modala, N. R., S. Ale, N. Rajan, C. L. Munster, P. B. DeLaune, K. R. Thorp, S. S. Nair, E. M. Barnes. 2015. Evaluation of the CSM-CROPGROW-Cotton Model for the Texas Rolling Plains Region and Simulation of Deficit Irrigation Strategies for Increasing Water Use Efficiency. Transactions of the ASABE Vol. 58(3): 685-696.

Montgomery, D.R. 2007. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. PNAS 104:13268-13277.

Mooney, D.F., B.C. English, M. Velandia, J.A. Larson, R.K. Roberts, D.M. Lambert, S.L. Larkin, M.C. Marra, R. Rejesus, S.W. Martin, K.W. Paxton, A. Mishra, E. Segarra, C. Wang, and J.M. Reeves. 2010. “Precision Farming by Cotton Producers in Twelve Southern States: Results from the 2009 Southern Cotton Precision Farming Survey.” Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics, Research Report 10-02, The University of Tennessee.

Naranjo, S.E., 2005a. Long-term assessment of the effects of transgenic Bt cotton on the abundance of non-target arthropod natural enemies. Environmental Entomology 34: 1193-1210.

Naranjo, S.E.. 2005b. Long-term assessment of the effects of transgenic Bt cotton the function of the natural enemy community. Environmental Entomology 34: 1211-1223.

Nelson, R.G., C.M. Hellwinckel, C.C. Brandt and T.O. West, D.G. De La Torre Ugarte, and G. Marland. 2009. Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the United States, 1990–2004. J. Environ. Qual. 38:418–425.

Oron, G., DeMalach, J., Hoffman, Z., and Cibotaru., R. 1991. Subsurface microirrigation with effluent. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 117:25-36.

Owens, H. 2001. Tillage: From plow to chisel and no-tillage, 1930-1999. MidWest Plan Service, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa [specifically page 30]. 35 pp.

Reed, J.N., E.M. Barnes and K.D. Hake. 2009. US Cotton Growers Respond to Natural Resource Survey. Technical Information Section. International Cotton Advisory Committee, THE ICAC RECORDER, Vol. XXVII. No. 2, June 2009.

Roberts, R. K., Burton C. English, James A. Larson, Rebecca L. Cochran, Bob Goodman, Sherry Larkin, Michele Marra, Steve Martin, Jeanne Reeves, and Don Shurley. 2001. “Precision Farming by Cotton Producers in Six Southern States: Results from the 2001 Southern Precision Farming Survey”. University of Tennessee Research Series 03-02, 88 pp., 2003.

Roberts, R.K., B.C. English, J.A. Larson, R. L. Cochran, S.L. Larkin, M.C. Marra, S.W. Martin, K.W. Paxton, W. D. Shurley, W.R. Goodman, and J.M. Reeves. 2006. “Use of Precision Farming Technologies by Cotton Farmers in Eleven States.” pp. 288-295. In Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences, San Antonio, TX, January 3-6, 2006. National Cotton Council of America, Memphis, TN.

Sansone, C.G., RR. Minzenmayer & T.W. Fuchs. 1999. Impact of boll weevil eradication in the Southern Rolling Plains of Texas at the field level. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference 2:840-842.

Sherif, S.M., Fox, R.W., and Maughan, O.E. 2002. Economic feasibility of introducing pulsed-flow aquaculture into the irrigation system of cotton farms in Arizona. Aquaculture Economics and Management. 6:349-361.

Smith, G.F. and T.M. Johnson. 2003. Making A Splash: Beaver Creek Study Final Report. AE03-63. The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Also at:

Stubbs, M. 2012. Conservation Compliance and U.S. Farm Policy. Congressional Research Service 7-5700, R42459.

Thorp, K.R., Douglas J. Hunsaker, Kevin F. Bronson, Pedro Andrade-Sanchez, Edward M. Barnes. 2017. Cotton Irrigation Scheduling Using a Crop Growth Model and FAO-56 Methods: Field and Simulation Studies. Transactions of the ASABE. (in press). (doi: 10.13031/trans.12323)

Towery, D., and S. Werblow. 2010. Facilitating Conservation Farming Practices and Enhancing Environmental Sustainability with Agricultural Biotechnology. Published by the Conservation Technology Information Center – available at:

USDA. 2006. Agricultural Chemical Usage 2005 Field Crops Summary. May 2006. United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service.

USDA. 2009. Summary Report: 2007 National Resources Inventory, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC, and Center for Survey Statistics and Methodology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. 123 pages. Also at:

USDA. 2010. Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey (2008) Volume 3, Special Studies, Part 1. AC-07-SS-1. United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service. Issued November 2009, Update July 2010.

USDA. 2011. Agricultural Chemical Usage 2010 Field Crops Summary. May 2011. United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service.

Van Gerpen, J.H., C.L. Peterson, and C.E Goering. 2007. Biodiesel: An Alternative Fuel for Compression Ignition Engines, ASABE Distinguished Lecture Series No. 31, February 2007.

Vellidis, G., M. Tucker, C. Perry, C. Kvien, and C. Bednarz. 2008. A real-time wireless smart sensor array for scheduling irrigation. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 61:44–50.

Wakelyn, P.J. J.V. Edwards, N.R. Bertoniere, B.A. Triplett, L. Hunter, A.D. French, M. Rousselle, D.D., McAlister, D.P. Thibodeaux, W.R. Goynes, and G.R. Gamble. 2007. Chapter 3 – Chemical Composition of Cotton in Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology. CRC Press, New York. 162 pp.

Wanjura, D.F., D.R. Upchurch, and J.R. Mahan. 2006. Behavior of temperature-based water stress indicators in BIOTIC-controlled irrigation. Irrigation Science 24:223-232.

Williams, M.R. 2012. Cotton insect losses 2011. Presented at the 2012 Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Orlando, Florida, January 3-6, 2012. Pp. 1013-1037.

Wood, J.H., G.R. Long, and D.F. Morehouse. 2004. Long-term world oil supply scenarios: The Future Is Neither as Bleak or Rosy as Some Assert. U.S. Energy Information Administration.

Zwart, S.J., and W.G.M. Bastiaanssen. 2004. Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and maize. Agricultural Water Management 69:115-133.